Rudolf Virchow's original 1858 paper in German describing the discovery of neural glial cells. pdf

Bernhard Riemann's original 1859 hand written paper in German describing the Riemann hypothesis. pdf

Alan Hodgkin's and Andrew Huxley's original 1952 paper in the Journal of Physiology describing their model of the neuronal action potential. They received the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology in 1963 for their work. pdf

Roger Tsien's 1998 review on green fluorescent protein in Annual Review of Biochemistry, published exactly ten years before his Nobel Prize in chemistry for his discovery of green fluorescent protein (shared with Osamu Shimomura and Martin Chalfie). pdf

Grigori Perelman's three 2006 papers published to the ArXiv archives that prove the Poincaré conjecture. Of note, Perelman famously declined both the Field's Medal and the million dollar Clay Institute prize  ( for his achievement. In fact, he does not mention the Poincaré conjecture in his papers at all. Instead proving Thurston's geometrization conjecture which implied the Poincaré conjecture. pdf pdf pdf

Andrew Wiles' 1995 proof of Fermat's last theorem published in the Annals of Mathematics. pdf

Re-print of Claude Shannon's 1948 paper in the Bell Systems Technical Journal seminal introduction and development of what would become information theory. pdf

Shannon's development of information theory was motivated to a significant degree by the original work of Ralph Hartley in 1927 on the "Transmission of information" (pdf) and Harry Nyqvist's 1924 work on the speed of information transmission in the telegraph (pdf). Both originals are reproduced here. 

Although Shannon's information theory is better known, one of the most beautiful and eloquent descriptions of information is Kolmogorov complexity, also referred to as algorithmic complexity or algorithmic information theory. It was developed independently and in somewhat different flavors by Andrei Kolmogorov (,  Ray Solomonoff (, and Gregory Chaitin ( An almost comprehensive repository of on-going research and publications related to algorithmic information theory can be found here. Here we reproduce Kolmogorov's original 1968 paper. pdf

John Wheeler's original 1989 essay on the information-based 'it from bit' nature of the universe. pdf


The einstein collections

The papers and commentaries by Albert Einstein reproduced here represent only a cursory sampling of his entire written legacy. Einstein was a prolific writer, with about 80,000 manuscripts and pieces of correspondence (by him or too him) known. There are two projects that are superb scholarly resources that reproduce in digitized high resolution most (all) of Einstein's writings, including digital reproductions of his hand written manuscripts. These projects are the The Einstein Papers Project at CalTech ( , and see for their collection of digitized manuscripts), and The Einstein Archives Online ( These two sources are the authoritative scholarly online repositories of Einstein's collected works.

Einstein's 1945 paper published in the Annals of Mathematics introducing general relativity. pdf

Einstein's Nobel Prize lecture. pdf

His 1936 paper from The Annas of Mathematics. pdf

"On the method of theoretical physics", Herbert Spencer lecture, Oxford University, June 10, 1943. pdf

Commentary in Science (1920). pdf

Commentary in Science (1936). pdf

Commentary in Science (1940). pdf

Commentar in Science (1951). pdf

Collection of correspondence between Einstein and Barrie Stavis, 1953. pdf